商务交换从工具上分内部和内部交换 Viewed from the perspective of where the communication heads for, business writing falls into two major categories: internal communication and external communicatio...商务交换从工具上分内部和内部交换
Viewed from the perspective of where the communication heads for, business writing falls into two major categories: internal communication and external communication.
Internal Communication A host of methods are employed in most organizations to transmit information through the formal communication system. They move downward, upward, or horizontally. The messages that move downward in most cases outnumber those moving upward or horizontally. Downward communications, often in the form of memos, can perform the following functions.1. To inform the employees of their duties, responsibilities, rights, and opportunities.2. To build up and maintain employee morale and goodwill toward the organization and management personnel.3. To keep the routine and special activities of the organization moving smoothly and efficiently.4. To invite and encourage upward communication, or feedback.One of fundamental purposes for upward communication is to provide information for management decisions. The upward flow of communication, often in the form of reports, furnishes information and recommendations on which intelligent decisions are made. Horizontal communication occurs when employees who are on the sane corporate level communicate with one another. Marketing manager's exchange of message with his/her counterpart in the production department is an example of horizontal communication.External Communication Writings whose addressees are people outside the business organization belong to external communications. It is the business's ties with its suppliers, customers, service companies, and the general public.The importance of effective external communication to business hardly requires supporting comment. A business organization's survival and success are contingent upon its ability to satisfy the customers' diversifying needs. Equally important, in today's complex business settings, businesses become increasingly interdependent in the manufacturing and distribution of goods and services. And this interdependence understandably gives rise to the need for effective communications.中文参考：从交换的工具来看，商务写作可以分为两种：内部交换和内部交换。
关键字：不是内部或内部饬令 内部不经济性内部化 内部客户与内部客户 内部管帐监视的工具 内部客户和内部客户