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庞大定语从句的汉译

2010-06-08点击数(0)
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庞大定语从句的汉译 1.自在式定语从句 自在式定语从句是指一个句子中两个或两个以上不分解分带定语从句的情况。这种从句的先行词没有牢固形式,在句中充当不合的句子身分,故该构造中的定语从句称为自在式定...
庞大定语从句的汉译
1.自在式定语从句
自在式定语从句是指一个句子中两个或两个以上不分解分带定语从句的情况。这种从句的先行词没有牢固形式,在句中充当不合的句子身分,故该构造中的定语从句称为自在式定语从句。它们拆开来看,实在便是一个一个简朴的定语从句,因此,其翻译也和简朴的定语从句相通。如: Thus the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs, which had moved the capital from Medine to Damascus in 661, came to be regarded with much justification as a parasitic clique that had outlived its usefulness once the conquests were completed.人们开始来由充沛地以为,阿拉伯伍麦叶里发王朝是降服战役完成后毫无感化的一个寄生团体;伍麦叶王朝曾于661年从麦地那迁都年夜马士革。
该句中由which和that引出两个定语从句,分别润色做主语用的the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs和作宾语用的 a parasitic clique,翻译时一个被译成并列句,一个被译成定语。
2.嵌套式定语从句
嵌套式定语从句是指一个句子中定语从句套定语从句的情况。这种构造中的定语从句实在和自在式定语从句根基类似,拆开来也是一个自力的定语从句,只不外一个定语从句在另一个定语从句之中罢了。因此,其翻译也与简朴的定语从句相通。这里也仅举一例加以申明:Likewise in the east were the Seljuk Turks who had infiltrated from their Central asinan homeland into the Islamic Empire where they were employed as mercenaries by the Baghdad caliphs.异样,在东方是塞尔柱突厥人,他们从故乡中亚进进伊斯兰教帝国;在那边被巴格达哈里发雇为雇佣军。
该句中有两个定语从句,即在由who引出的定语从句中又套了一个由where引出的定语从句。翻译时,可按翻译简朴的定语从句的体例。这里,两者均被译成了并列句,分别润色先行词the Seljuk Turks和 the Islamic Empire。
3.并列式定语从句
并列式定语从句是并列身分中的定语从句的简称,指一个句子中两个或两个以上并列身分均带定语从句的情况。笔者刊登在《中国翻译》(96.1)上的《英语并列身分中定语从句的汉译》一文曾作过介绍。这里再弥补一点,这类定语从句也可译成状语从句,即先把主句译出,再把定语从句译成两个默示并列或转折干系的状语从句。This was a defensive pact, designed to protect Germany against the French, who aspired to recover the alsace-Lorraine provinces lost in 1871, and also to protect Austria-hungary against the Russians, with whom they continually clashed in the Balkans.这是一个防备性的盟约,旨在保护德国人免受法国人的进犯,保护奥匈帝国免受IT人的进犯;因为法国人想收复1871年失落往的阿尔萨斯-洛林地区,而IT人则在巴尔干半岛同奥匈帝国连续赓续地发作抵触。
4.一主二仆式定语从句
一主二仆式定语从句是指一个先行词带有两个或两个以上定语从句的情况。该构造中的定语从句比较范例,均润色一个先行词,在翻译时,固然也依照通俗定语从句的翻译本领和体例,但另有其奇特的中央。回纳起来,有如下几种情况:
1)译成定语可以把两个定语从句译成并列的定语,也可译身分开的定语润色先地词,或分别润色频频的先行词。… and the old ways of earning a living rivalled by new agricultural techniques, by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by new crafts with strane machines that saved labor and that ran without the traditional
human or animal power.
陈腐的谋生之道正遭到新的农业技能、新的商业、新的行业的挑衅;这种新商业是与世界上不断无人知晓的地区举行的商业,而各种新行业则是利用一些无需传统的人力畜力驱动、可节省休息力的奇特机遇。(并列的定语)Almost everything which really matters and which the world possessed at the commencement of the modern age was already known to man at the dawn of history.近代史开始时,世界拥有的每一项重年夜成绩,已为历史发轫期的人们所知晓。(分开的定语) And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed and exploited ony by the Western Europeans.它有助于申明,为什么发源于中国的良多发明和希腊罗马人所晓得的良多发明,只是在西欧人手中才获得片面生长和充沛使用。(分开的定语润色频频的先行词)2)译成并列句可以把两个定语从句简朴地译成一个并列句,也可以把它们译成两个分开的并列句,用来默示并列、转折或先后顺序等干系:Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient vilage that was worked by serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.因此,采邑是靠农奴运营的自足自给以的乡村;农奴不能任意分开,并以其休息养活教俗封建团体。(一个并列句)Not Surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic influence was the strongest.尽不特别,苏丹出现了最庞大的政治构造,在那边,远程商业生长得最快,伊斯兰教的影响最为激烈。(两个并列句)Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society… where poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under control; and where our educational facilities provide all the children of Ghana with the best possible opportunities for the development of their potentialities.我们的目标是在加纳建立一个强大、提高的社会……在这里,贫苦和文盲不再存在,疾病获得控制;在这里,我们的教诲机构为加纳全部的孩子供给生长他们的潜力的最好机遇。(两个并列句,默示并列干系)This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan's grandson, Hulagu, who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.成吉思汗的孙子旭烈兀所获得的庞年夜乐成,滋长了这一希看。旭烈兀是个释教徒,而他的老婆是IT教徒。(两个并列句,默示转折干系)3)其他译法这类定语从句除上述两种正轨、牢固的翻译体例外,另有其他几种比较灵活的译法。我们可以把翻译简朴定语从句的体例疏浚领悟领悟,运用其中,如译成定语+句子身分,即把一个从句译成定语,另一个从句译成句子身分;或译成并列句(或句子身分)+状语从句,即把一个从句译成并列句或句子身分,另一个从句译成状语从句等。
Even so the lisbon government admitted in March !()" That a major attack had been launched by guerrillas who were armed with mortars and automatic weapons and who inflilcted "many" Portuguese casualties.即便如斯,里斯本政府仍于1970年3月供认,配备迫击炮和主动兵器的游击队已策划了一次年夜范围的打击,使葡萄牙人接受"重年夜"伤亡。(定语+句子身分)
At one extreme are Hawii and Brazil, where racial intermixture is extensive and continuing, and where racial discrimination is relatively minor.处于一个极度的是夏威夷和巴西,在那边,种族混合非常遍及,并且正在继承举行,因此,种族比方视较少。(并列句+状语从句)
He was also an old-line Stalinist who had spent 16 years in Hungarian jails in the interwar period and who was now unwilling to share authority with the "nationalist" Hungarian Communists.他照旧一位老牌的斯年夜林主义者,曾在两次世界年夜战之间的期间内涵匈牙利牢狱呆了16年,因此这时不愿与"夷易近族主义的"匈牙利共产党人分享权利。(句子身分+状语从句)
关键字:定语从句的用法 英语中的定语从句 as指导的定语从句 when指导的定语从句 定语从句

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